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Technology - Abstracts


Selected physical properties of blends of aspen kraft wood pulp and alkaline sulphite flax straw pulp

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc. Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. The evaluation of the basic physical strengths of blends of peroxide-bleached alkaline-sulphite flax straw pulp and ECF-bleached aspen kraft pulp has been undertaken. Preliminary test results indicated that flax straw pulp can enhance the tear-tensile and tear-burst strength profiles of bleached aspen kraft pulp, for the manufacture of printing paper. The strength enhancement was evident at the 15% usage of flax straw pulp in the blend. (AK19421W)

Proc. Tappi Pulping Conference, Boston, MA, November, 2000.


Experience in the technical and market development of agri-pulp printing papers in North America

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. The renewed public interest of agricultural fibre-based paper is continuing in North America. There are substantial technical and market challenges to overcome in the commercial realization of a mass-use, agri-pulp™ paper project in the Western economy. Successful usage of straw for paper manufacture presents challenges: to reduce destruction of the natural forest, to help create an alternative model for the maintenance of rural economy and to test novel manufacturing technologies which do not pollute. Using classical wood-based pulping technology does not fit into the economic context of a modest-scale farming community based project.

Arbokem Inc. initiated its own agri-pulp mill project in 1989 with the goal of establishing an agri-pulp mill which has zero-effluent discharge. The demonstration-scale agri-pulp mill located in Vulcan, Alberta, Canada was designed and constructed by Arbokem in 1993/94. It was started up in mid-1994. There were major successes and setbacks in the project realization path.

Various grades of mass-use printing papers containing different types of agri-pulp and wastepaper were produced and test-printed. In particular, agri-pulp paper for offset printing, photocopying and inkjet printing has been made and sold in North America since 1996. (AGRI-PULP™ is a registered trademark of Arbokem Canada; AK19167W).

Proc. 4th International Non-Wood Fibre Pulping and Papermaking Conference, CTAPI, Jinan, China, September 18-21, 2000. pp. 23-32.


Socio-economic and technical issues of on-purpose fibre cropping and food cropping

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. On-purpose fibre cropping and food cropping are the two means to supply non-tree based, cellulosic fibres for papermaking. For most papermaking applications, on-purpose fibre cropping is an inefficient supply approach. It is unnecessary to set aside arable land for fibre production only. Food cropping with co-production of surplus straw is the most practical and environmentally-benign means to deliver large quantities of papermaking fibres. The farm economy could be improved significantly with the collection and sales of surplus cereal straw for industrial uses. Greenhouse gas emission could be reduced concomitantly through such a practice. (AK19493W)

Proc. 1st World Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy and Industry, Sevilla, Spain, June 5-9, 2000. pp. 238-240


Agripulp™ newsprint

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. The concept of using agricultural fibre for newsprint in the North America is a technical and economic challenge. The principal obstacle is the current availability of relatively low-price wastepaper and virgin wood fibre for the manufacture of newsprint.

In 1995, Arbokem began the development of a novel newsprint which contains a significant quantity of agricultural pulp fibres. The goal was to make a high-performance newsprint on a modern paper machine. The primary agricultural fibres considered were cereal straw and seed grass straw.

About 163 tonnes (180 short tons) of standard (49 g/m2) newsprint was made successfully on the No. 1 Bel-Baie paper machine of Smurfit Newsprint Corp. (Oregon City, Oregon). The final furnish of the Agri-Pulp™ newsprint contained 20% Agri-Pulp™ , 12% thermomechanical wood pulp (TMP) and 68% old newspaper pulp (ONP). The Agri-Pulp™ was made from Oregon rye grass straw, California rice straw and British Columbia red fescue straw. In the weeks following the papermaking test run, the Agri-Pulp™ newsprint was test-printed commercially by the Los Angeles Time, Santa Rosa Press-Democrat, San Jose Mercury News, Paradise Post, Sacramento Bee, The Oregonian and The Orange County Register. The pressroom operators generally found the printing quality and physical strengths of the test Agri-Pulp™ newsprint to be somewhat better than those of standard newsprint. (Agri-Pulp™ is a registered trademark of Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada; AK17708W)

Proc. 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas, Oakland, California, USA, September, 1999.


Agricultural fibre supply for pulp production

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Agricultural cropping residues are the only readily available source of fibre for agri-pulp production. Its aggregate quantity of 260 million tonnes in North America could have a significant impact in reducing forest-based wood usage for paper manufacture, in real time. (AK15346W)

Paper present at Fiber Futures '97 Conference, Monterey, California,
June 2, 1997.


Agri-pulp is fine furnish

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. A commercial scale trial is being planned for the production of an agri-pulp newsprint. Several large dailies such as the New York Times and the Los angeles Times have already agreed to participate in the commercial pressroom runs.

NAA TechNews, Jan-Feb, 1996. p. 12.


Aquasolve pulping of non-wood fibers

Spencer, M., University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Allen, S., University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Antal, M.J. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA and Wong, A., Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Non-wood fibres (sugar cane and hesperaloe) have been pulped using hot com[pressed liquid water (220 C, 5 MPa, 120 s). No additional chemicals, additives, pre- or post treatments were employed. Since only water was used, the term “Aquasolv”, meaning to dissolve with water, has been adopted to describe the process. Unbleached refined pulp produced from depithed sugar cane had acceptable strength properties and could likely be used in a mixture with chemical wood pulp. The selectivity of this chemical-free delignification is lower than that of conventional kraft or sulfite process.

Proc. 3rd Tropical Pulp and Paper Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December, 1994.


Impact of biomass potassium on the operation of effluent-free agri-pulp mills

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Agricultural fibres routinely contain a high quantity of potassium. The origin is due to the natural uptake of potassium from the soil. A pulp mill using agricultural fibre will have a significant inflow of biomass potassium into the mill process. As Group I elements, potassium and sodium ions have similar physical and chemical properties. Process losses of potassium can be expected to be essentially in the same proportion as those of sodium. Modern chemical pulp mills are required to have little or no effluent. As a sodium-base pulp mill is discharging less effluent, potassium concentration can be predicted to become progressively predominant. (AK11935A)

Proc. Tappi Pulping Conference, San Diego, USA, November, 1994.


Technical and economic obstacles affecting the early commercialization of kenaf pulp manufacture

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Kenaf is widely recognized as a specialty fibre crop which can be substituted for wood in the production of papermaking pulps. The two distinct fibre fractions of kenaf offer unusual versatility in the design of papermaking pulps for specific end uses. At present, there are no large –scale or extensive production of such pulps from kenaf, anywhere in the World. There are several technical and economic obstacles affecting the early commmercializtion of kenaf pulp manufacture. The technical and economic problems include kenaf supply logistics and security, the selection of optimal pulping and bleaching schemes for the available raw material, management of inputs of non-process elements with the kenaf raw material, economic management of process effluents, and market competitiveness of the finished pulp products. (AK8196)

Proc. 1991 TAPPI Pulping Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, November, 1991.
pp. 505-512.


Potassium pulping of industrial fibre crops and agricultural residues

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Industrial fibre crops are for, among other things, the manufacture of papermaking pulps. The two major end use categories of fibre crops are: Wood pulp substitute – jute, bamboo, straw, bagasse, kenaf stem; Specialty pulp – flax, hemp, sisal, esparto, abaca, kenaf bark. Because of the seasonal nature of crop fibre availability, and unsolved economics of large-scale fibre collection and transport, most pulp mills using agricultural fibres are typically of small pulp production capacities. Unfortunately, pollution control measures for the operation of a small-scale pulp mill are very costly. The cost for pollution control may exceed the cost of the pulp production unit in many cases. There is a need for clean manufacturing technology.

Arbokem has developed a novel technique for the small-scale manufacture of papermaking pulp from agricultural materials. The technology is based on the use of potassium chemicals instead of sodium chemicals. In our novel technology, the spent pulping liquor and bleaching effluent are used to produce potassium-based fertilizer for market. Costly expenditure for chemical recovery of spent pulping liquor, or ex-plant effluent treatment could thus be avoided entirely. (AK7038)

Proc. AAIC International Conference, Riverside, California, USA,
October 9-12, 1990.


Potassium-based pulping of wheat straw

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Montreal, Canada, Dixon Ng, Arbokem Inc., Montreal, Canada, Jerry Hull, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA and W.J. Frederick, jr., Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

ABSTRACT. Potassium-based pulping of agricultural residues offers a novel means to dispose of spent pulping liquor in a safe and economical fashion. Present study showed that potassium-based and sodium-based sulphite pulping systems are comparable in pulping rate and pulp quality. (AK5622A)

Proc. 1989 Tappi Pulping Conference, Seattle, USA, October, 1989.


Shive content in flax fibres

Alfred Wong, Arbokem Inc., Montreal, Canada

ABSTRACT. Linen and oilseed flax fibres are commonly used for the production of speciality pulp in the manufacture of high-quality cigarette, currency and thin papers. Most pulp mills use either the kraft or neutral sulphite cooking procedure. The yield of pulp from fibres is dependent mainly on the specific procedure and the quality of the fibre raw material. The unavailability of a reliable test method for the estimation of shive content hindered the assessment of the commercial quality of the raw material. In this study, several chemical and physical techniques were evaluated. The acid-insoluble lignin method was found to be the most reliable and accurate for a broad range of flax raw materials. For a given pulping technique used, less woody material (shives) in the raw material will produce higher net pulp yield.

Proc. 1988 International Non-Wood Fiber Pulping and Paper Making Conference, Beijing, China, July, 1988. pp. 415-424.


Quality of effluents from the chemical pulping of oilseed and linen flax fibres

Al Wong, Arbokem Inc., Montreal, Canada

ABSTRACT. Samples of spent pulping liquor were tested for BOD, COD and colour. The liquors were from neutral sulphite pulping of different blends of oilseed flax and linen flax fibres. The test results showed that BOD and colour loadings were virtually unaffected by the fibre blends used or by the tital poulp yield achieved. In contrast, COD loading was found to increase markedly as the pulp yield was decreased. The BOD loading of kraft pulping effluent was found to be at least 2 times greater than that of neutral sulphite pulping effluent, at a given pulp yield.

Proc. 1987 Tappi Pulping Conference, Washington, DC, November, 1987.


Effect of tetrahydroanthraquinone (THAQ) on the neutral sulphite pulping of seed flax fibres

Al Wong, Prairie Fibre Inc., Tisdale, Saskatchewan, Canada

ABSTRACT. Cigarette, Bible and currency papers are normally made with flax pulp. The principal processes used for the pulping of flax fibres are modified kraft and alkaline/neutral sulphite . The present study showed that the addition of 0.1% tetrahydroanthraquinone (THAQ) can improve the neutral sulphite pulping of seed flax fibres. The process benefits include 2% higher pulp yield and 33% shorter cooking time. The quality of the bleached “THAQ” flax pulp was comparable to that of the reference pulp.

J. Pulp Paper Sci., 13, 1: J14 (1987).


Neutral sulphite pulping of seed flax and textile linen flax fibres

Al Wong, Prairie Fibre Inc., Tisdale, Saskatchewan, Canada

ABSTRACT. Samples of (medium-retted) seed-flax and (well-retted-linen-flax fibres were pulped in the laboratory. The neutral sulphite pulping process was used. Seed-flax fibres gave about 7% lower pulp yield than linen-flax fibres. A blend of 70% linen-flax and 30% seed-flax fibres showed no appreciable difference in pulp yield from that of 100% linen flax fibres. Preliminary test data indicated that seed-flax pulp would be easier to bleach than linen-flax pulp, even when the former pulp was of higher Kappa number. The physical strengths of the bleached pulps were virtually identical.

Proc. 1986 Tappi Pulping Conference, Toronto, October, 1986.

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